What are the symptoms of Gastritis and diet-related management of Gastritis?

What are the symptoms of Acute Gastritis?
Anorexia, epigastric (upper and middle pain in the abdomen) discomfort, heartburn, nausea, severe vomiting, headache, hemorrhage, and pain in the upper abdomen, dark stool, hiccups, tachycardia, rapid pulse, and low blood pressure. The complications involve severe blood loss, with blood suddenly flowing into the region known as hyperemia, inflammation and even exudation.

What is Chronic Gastritis?
When gastritis subsides little but persists for a long duration it is called Chronic gastritis. It precedes the development of organic gastric lesion or tissue damage. Recurrent inflammation leads to changes in enzyme activity of gastric mucosal cells. Complete atrophy results in a lack of absorption of vitamin B12 (Pernicious anemia).

Gastroscopic observation shows 3 types of chronic gastritis:

  1. Superficial gastritis: Gastric mucous is red, oedematous, covered with adherent mucous hemorrhage and small erosion is frequently seen.
  2. Astrophic gastritis: The mucous lining becomes thinner, gray or grayish green hemorrhage mucosa irregularly distributed.
  3. Hypertrophic gastritis: presents a dull spomngy nodular appearance of the mucosa, the edges are irregular thickened with nudular hemorrhages or superficial haemorrhanges.

What is the cause of Chronic Gastritis?
They are same as acute. Generally, acute gastritis if well treated gets healed in3-4 days, however, if untreated can progress to chronic gastritis.

What are the ways to diagnose Chronic Gastritis?
Confirmation of Gastritis can be done by Endoscopy. There will be an inflammation of the gastric mucosal layer. This test is much better than barium meal studies. A biopsy can also be done to know the cause of the Gastritis.

How to confirm the cause of the Gastritis?
The main cause of gastritis besides food and irritant is an infection of the mucosa by the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori. The following special tests can be done to confirm the involvement of this germ in Gastritis.

What is the treatment of Gastritis?
Treatment for gastritis depends from person to person and on the specific cause. For most types of gastritis, reduction of stomach acid is helpful. Stomach acid is reduced by medication, antacids. Diet modification also controls gastritis. Antibiotics are used for infection.

What is the diet-related management of Gastritis?
Prompt medical care is successful in the management of an acute attack of gastritis only it is accompanied by efficient and judicious nutritional care. During an acute attack of gastritismeeting, the requirements are not of prime importance. Depending on the seriousness of the patients the food may be withheld for 24-48 hours. Fluid may be given intravenously if needed. Liquid foods are given as per the patient’s tolerance level. The amount of food and number of feedings are adjusted according to the patient’s tolerance until a full regular diet is achieved. Always follow a progressive diet i.e, liquid to semi-solid to solid as when the symptoms improve. The diet should contain less fat and must be bland. Many nutritional deficiencies occur in this disorder especially during chronic gastritis e.g vitamin B12, iron, and other vitamin deficiencies.

The dietary guidelines are enumerated here with:
Energy: Give adequate calories through frequent feeding or else protien would be utilized for the energy of repair work.
Protien: Give adeqaute protien (1g\kg body weight) through skimmed milk, egg, steamed fish, chicken, minced meat etc.

Carbohydrates: simple easy to digest carbohydrates should be included in the soft well-cooked form. Thus, semolina, rice, maida, sago, arrowroot etc. may be included whereas whole cereals and millets should particularly be avoided if gastritis has caused damage to the mucosa.

Vitamin B12: Supplementation with vitamin B12 helps to treat pernicious anemia and H. pylori infection. Its sources include fish, dairy products, organ meats, eggs, beef, and pork.
Vitamin A: A combination of vitamin Of vitamin A (found in many green and orange colored fruits and vegetables) and antacids is helpful in healing ulcers.
Vitamin C: A high dose of vitamin C treatment is effective in treating H. Pylori infection.
I have been observed that diets high in should fiber, carotenoids and antioxidants reduce the risk of developing gastritis.