Insulin Importance for Diabetics
Insulin is a protein molecule made up of 51 amino acids which are directly released into the body by the pancreas (an organ that is located in the abdomen). Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).
The cells in our body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of our cells directly. After we eat food and our blood sugar level rises, cells in our pancreas (known as beta cells) are signalled to release insulin into our bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin has to bind with a protein present in the cell membrane(called the Insulin Receptor) like a lock and key – to facilitate the glucose entry. The cells can then use the glucose as energy to carry out its functions. The average daily secretion of insulin ranges from 30 to 50 units.
There can be two conditions by which glucose levels rise in the blood. First is that the body cannot produce enough Insulin it needs and the second one, Insulin production is normal or little low but cells unable to respond normally to the insulin, this is known as Insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin. The body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream from the digestion of carbohydrates (primarily) in the diet. When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are unable to use Insulin as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. Beta cells in the pancreas subsequently increase their production of insulin, further contributing to a high blood insulin level. This can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
People with insulin resistance have cells throughout their bodies that don’t use insulin effectively. This means the cells have trouble absorbing glucose, which causes a buildup of sugar in their blood.