i. Vitamin A: Its deficiency causes atrophy of the lachrymal glands of the eyes and causes a reduction in tear secretion. It may cause night blindness called nyctalopia. The corneal epithelium becomes red and dry and this disease is called xerosis. It may also become wrinkled and keratinized called xeropthalmia. Bitot’s spot may appear in the cornea. Keratomalacia also occurs which is the infection of the necrosed cornea.

ii. Vitamin B1: Deficiency of Vitamin B1 causes beriberi which affects the nervous and the cardiovascular system and it is acute in children and infants.

iii. Vitamin B2: Loss of appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, soreness, and burning of the tongue, lips, and mouth occur due to Vitamin B2. It may also cause fissures at the edges of the mouth.

iv. Vitamin B6: This vitamin is also called pyridoxine and its deficiency in humans causes dermatitis (skin becoming red and painful) around the eyes, nose, and behind the ears. Fissures may appear above the lips and at the angles of the mouth.

v. Vitamin B12: Pernicious anemia, sore tongue, and neurological problems related to the spinal cord are caused due to B12.

vi. Vitamin Niacin: Its deficiency causes pellagra whose principal symptoms are dermatitis, stomatitis, and dementia (mental changes). The tongue becomes smooth, red, and painful.

vii. Vitamin C: Its deficiency causes scurvy. This disease is characterized by bleeding gums, loosening and falling of teeth, and intramuscular hemorrhages. This is because the deficiency of this leads to the improper synthesis of collagen and connective tissue proteins.

viii. Vitamin D: Its deficiency causes decalcification of bones which in turn can cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.

ix. Vitamin E: The deficiency of Vit E causes sterility in animals and it is rare in human beings.

x. Vitamin K: Lack of vitamin K in human beings cause hemorrhagic manifestations and it also causes defects in blood clotting or coagulation.

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