Complications of High Blood Pressure.

Complications of High Blood Pressure.
High Blood pressure, if not controlled for a long time leads to many complications. A few of them are:

Heart Diseases:-

  • Left ventricular hypertrophy i.e enlargement of the left chamber of the heart.
  • Heart Attack (Myocardial infarction).
  • Heart Failure i.e pumping power of the heart is decreased & the heart is not able to pump blood to organs and muscles. All organs and muscles need oxygen for their proper functioning. This oxygen is supplied through blood. When pumping power of heart decreases these muscles and organs do not get appropraite amount of oxgen.

Brain / Nervous Systems:-

Transient ischemic attack:- Temporary stoppage of blood supply to the brain due to which the patient may develop symptoms like general weakness, weakness in limbs, blindness, numbness. These symptoms remain for a few minutes to a few hours.

Stroke:- In this the patient loses her consciousness, develops weakness of the limbs due to abnormal, severe discharge of blood into the tissue mainly brain, due to occlusion of artery by clot formation in it, or due to rupture of an artery in brain. The patient may go into coma and may die due to other complications.
Hypertensive Encephalopathy:- Heart is not able to pump the required blood to brain due to which less oxygen is supplied to it.
So due to less supply of oxygen patient becomes irritables, talks irrelevant & complaint of headache.


  • Hypertensive Nephropathy:- This term includes inflammatory (nephritis) Degenerative and sclerotic (arteriosclerotic) lesions of the kidney, resulting from high pressure in small vessels supplying the kidneys.


Retinopathy:- Retina is the innermost layer of the eye, which aids vision. Hypertension affects retina due to which the patient may lose eyesight.

Peripheral arterial diseases:-
Indicates the disease of limbs. Hypertension can cause roughning, stiffness and blockage of these vessels.
If untreated about 50% of hypertension patients die of heart disease, about 33% of stroke and 10-15% of kidney diseases (renal failure). Those with rapidly accelerating hypertension die more frequently of renal failure, as thosewho are diabetic, once proteinuria (proteins in urine) or other evidence of kidneys diseases develops.
The hypertension induced vascular damage can best be ascertained by examination of eyes, heart and kidneys.