CLASSIFICATION OF OBESITY: WHERE ARE YOU?
There are two ways in which obesity can we classified: one is according to the weight and another one according to the cause of weight gain.
1. Grade I obesity: These people have Body Mass Index(BMI) more than 25 but less than 29.9. Overweight does not affect their health, they lead to normal health and life expectancy is normal.
2. Grade II obesity: The BMI is between 30-39.9. These patients should be treated by doctors and dietitians. Although they appear to be in good health, they have reduced tolerance to exercise with shortness of breath on exertion and they are unduly fatigued. This is due to the burden of increased weight they always carry and also due to compromised circulatory and respiratory systems by internal fat mass and fatty infiltration of muscle.
For mechanical and metabolic reasons, these patients are at increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, hernias, and varicose veins. Mortality rate also increases.
3. Grade III obesity: The BMI is above 40. These patients are in pathetic condition. Their day-to-day activities are restricted due to their enormous mass and are more susceptible to the diseases mentioned in grade II. They are more prone to accidents and serious psychological disturbance.
Other Methods to Assess Obesity:
1. Body weight: If a man is more than 10%(15 % for women) standard weight, he is obese.
2. Broca index: Ht(cm) minus 100. For example, if a person’s height is 160 cm, then the ideal weight is 60kg.
3. Measurement of body fat: Skinfold calipers are used to measure total body subcutaneous tissue.
4. Waist to hip ration : > 0.85 (females) and 1.0( males) is associated with obesity.
5. Obesity can also be classified as:
(i) Exogenous: It is caused by excessive energy intake.
(ii) Endogenous: It is caused by the inherent metabolic problem that promoted obesity.