Stroke or CVA is defined as a sudden non-convulsive neurological deficit. It is mainly due to non-supply of blood (thereby oxygen) to the brain or part of the brain due to a clot in the brain artery or due to bursting of the brain artery. This disease is common in the middle and later years of life.
Brain rules over the most sophisticated control system of the world, i.e. the central nervous system. All our sensations from every part of the body reach the brain via the sensory nerves and the brain orders all the movements through a set of nerves called the motor nerves. Our thought process, our vision, hearing, writing/ speaking, learning, memory and planning – almost all the activities are carried out in the brain. In stroke, the brain or part of it suddenly gets damaged or dead. This disease, thus, become very crucial and can hamper our life as well.
Brain cells are very specialised cells and continuously get blood supply and oxygen. In fact, about 20-25% of the body’s oxygen supply is in the brain, which weighs only 1.5 kilograms. Brain cells are so sensitive to lack of oxygen that even 10 seconds without oxygen may create unconsciousness. Within 2 minutes of non-supply of blood ( thereby oxygen), the brain cells get permanently dead or damaged. This is what happens in this disease called Stroke (Cerebro Vascular Accident or CVA). More than 2 lakh people die of a stroke in the USA every year and in India this number maybe 5 times more.
There are two possibilities which can make non-supply of blood to the brain. The first is alike the heart attack in case of heart. A blood clot can form in one of the brain arteries due to gradual atherosclerosis (fatty deposit) enterobacter rupture of the membrane covering the fatty deposit. This can be called an infarction, same as happens in the heart during the heart attack (called myocardial infarction). A clot (thrombus) forms inside the artery following this rupture closing the artery completely. The brain cells after this area get no supply of blood. another possible cause to close the brain arteries baby akhrot flowing in the blood (called embolus) coming to the brain and lodging there.
The second possibility of getting a stroke comes from bursting of any of the brain arteries. This is called a cerebral hemorrhage. High blood pressure is one of the most common cause of cerebral hemorrhage.
There are a number of causes of the stroke, which can be taken care of by lifestyle modification and adequate medication. Very good control of blood pressure (keeping it close to 120/80 mmHg), lowering of blood cholesterol level (keeping it closer to 130 mg/dl), lowering of serum triglycerides(close to 100 mg/dl), reduction of weight(tp below BMI 25), control of diabetes(serum glycosylated Hb below 7%), regular walk and yoga exercises, reduction of psychological stress, lowering of fat in the food etc, can definitely cut down the possibility of stroke by 98%.